Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (10.1-3)

[10.1] Then what he says, a mighty angel descended from heaven, clothed with a cloud, and a rainbow upon his head, and his face like the sun, and his feet like columns of fire, and having in his hand an open book, and he placed his feet upon the sea and the earth, signifies our Lord, as we have told above of His face like the sun, that is, of the resurrection; a rainbow upon his head is judgment, which was and will be. And the open book is the Apocalypse which John received. His feet, we also spoke of above, are to be equated with the apostles. For, both the sea and the earth to be trampled by Him signifies everything is put under His feet. He says he is an angel, that is, a messenger of the Father Almighty; for He is called a messenger of great counsel. To call out in a great voice: the great voice is of heaven; to announce to men the words of the Almighty God, because after the closing of repentance, there will be no hope afterward.

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Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (8.1-3)

[8.1] For we also read in the Gospel that the prayers of the Church are sent from heaven by an angel, and they are taken up by a holy angel against the outpouring of wrath and the darkness of the kingdom of Antichrist. For he says: Pray that you might not fall into temptation. For there will be great suffering, such as has not been from the beginning of the world; and except the Lord shortens those days, there would not be any flesh saved upon the earth. Therefore, He will send these seven great Archangels for the piercing of the kingdom of Antichrist. For as He also says in the Gospel: Then the Son of Man will send His messengers, and they will gather His chosen ones from the four winds, from the end of heaven to its (other) end. And he says before: then there will be peace in the earth, when seven shepherds will arise in it, and eight attacks (lit. ‘bites’) of men, and they will encircle Assur, that is, Antichrist, in the ditch of Nebroth: in the damnation of the devil. And Ecclesiastes similarly says: When the guardians of the house will be moved. For the Lord Himself says thus: When the workers come to him and say to him: ‘Lord, have we not sowed good seed in your field? So, from where are the weeds there?’ He answered them: ‘An enemy has done this.’ To whom they say: ‘Do you want us to go and remove that?’ He says to them: ‘No, leave them together so they are growing until the harvest. And at that time,’ He says, I will say to the harvesters to collect the weeds and throw them in the fire, and to lay up the wheat in the granaries. This Apocalypse shows these harvesters and shepherds and workers to be the Archangels.

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Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (7)

[7] And an angel descending from the rising of the sun: he speaks of the Prophet Elijah who is coming before the time of Antichrist, for the restoring and strengthening of the churches against the overwhelming persecution. We read of this in the opening of the books of the Old Testament and the new prophecy, for the Lord says through Malachi: Behold, I am sending to you Elijah the Tishbite, to turn back the heart of the father to the son, and the heart of a man to his neighbor, that is, to Christ through repentance; to turn back the heart of the father to the son: the time of a second calling, to recall the Jews to the faith of the following People. And therefore he also shows the number of the Jews, and the great multitude of the gentiles, who will believe.

Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (6.1-7)

[6.1] The unsealing of the seals is, as we have said, the opening of the Old Testament predictions and the announcement of what will happen in the end times; of which, although prophetic Scripture speaks by a single seal, yet, as all the seals are opened, the prediction has its order. Now, as he says, is opened the first seal; he saw a white horse, and the crowned rider has a bow: for this happened at first; for after our Lord ascended to heaven and opened everything, he sent the Holy Spirit, whose words, through preachers, are like arrows piercing the hearts of men, and conquering disbelief. The crown on the head of the preachers is promised by the Holy Spirit. Of the other three horses, the Lord, showing in the Gospel war, famine, and disease, plainly indicated the prediction. And therefore he says one of the animals, because all four are one. And come and see: come is said to one invited to the faith, and see is said to him who did not see. Therefore the white horse is the word of preaching sent into the world with the Holy Spirit; for the Lord says: This Gospel will be preached in all the world of the earth as a witness to all nations, and then will the end come.

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Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (5.1-3)

[5.1] And in the hand of the one sitting upon the judgment-seat was a book, written on the inside, sealed with seven seals: they signify the Old Testament, which is placed in the hand of our Lord, who has received judgment from the Father. He says, A herald cried out, whether anyone was worthy to open the book and remove its seals, and no one was found worthy, neither in heaven, nor in the earth, nor under the earth. For to open the Testament is to suffer, and to conquer death for men. To be worthy of this no one was found, neither among the angels in heaven, nor among men in the earth, nor among the souls of the saints in rest, none but Christ the Son of God alone, Whom he says he saw: a lamb as though slaughtered, having seven horns in number. About Him was predicted whatever the Law reflected about Him through the offerings and sacrifices, which was necessary for Him to accomplish. And because He was the testator and conquered death, it was just that He was made the heir of God, that he might also possess the substance of the one dying, that is, the members of humanity.

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Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (4.1-7)

[4.1] He says an open door in heaven: the preaching of the New Testament was seen by John, and it was said to him: Come up here. When it is depicted opened, it is obvious that it had previously been closed to men. But it was sufficiently and fully opened, when Christ ascended bodily to the Father. And the voice which he heard, when it said that he was talking with him: without contradiction it reproves the stubborn. He who is coming is He who spoke through the Prophets. For John was of the circumcision, and all that People which heard the preaching of the Old Testament was edified by that Voice. He says, For that voice which I heard, it said to me: Come up here: that is Jesus Christ whom he shows seen as a little before as a son of man among the golden lampstands. And now henceforth he recalls those things which were predicted in similitudes through the Law, and by these scriptures he connects all the earlier Prophets, and opens up the Scriptures. And because afterward our Lord invited to heaven all believing in His name, He immediately poured out the Holy Spirit, who brings men to heaven, he says: Immediately I was in the Spirit. And when the mind of the faithful is opened by the Holy Spirit, he makes obvious to them what also was predicted to those before.

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Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (3.1-3)

[3.1] The fifth kind, selection, or conduct of the saints, shows negligent men, doing other than they should in the world, foolish works, Christian in name only. And therefore he exhorts them, if they can turn back from dangerous negligence, to be saved. He says: Be strong for those who are dying; for I have not found your works full before my God. For it is not enough for a tree to live, and flourish, but not have fruit, as it is not enough to be called a Christian, and to confess Him, but not have Christian works.

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Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (2.1-4)

[2.1] Indeed, in his first letter he says, I know your suffering and works and your patience, I know you are suffering and see your works and patience: do not think I remain far (or ‘for long’) away from you. And that you cannot bear evil people, and that those who say they are apostles, you discovered them liars, and you have patience according to My name. All these belong to praise, and not mediocre praise. But also such men and of such a kind, and the selection of such men, indicates that every one of them must be admonished so that they are not deprived of good things. He says he has a few things against them, saying: You have abandoned your earlier love: remember from where you have fallen. He who falls, falls from a height, and therefore he says from where, for at all times until the end works of love are to be practiced, with is the greatest commandment. Finally, unless this is done, was threatened to move the lampstand from its place, that is, to scatter the people. For you hate the works of the Nicolaitans which I also hate; you have this, this belongs to praise. For the works of the Nicolaitans: before this time, false and disease-bearing men, ministers in the name of Nicolaus, made for themselves a heresy, (saying) that something devoted (to an idol) may be exorcized and eaten, and that whoever had fornicated could receive the peace on the eighth day. Therefore he praises those to whom he has written, to whom, such and so great men, he has promised that tree of life which is in the garden of God.

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Victorinus: In Apocalypsin (1.5-8)

[1.5] His voice was like the voice of many waters. Many waters are to be understood as peoples, or also the gift of baptism, which He gave as a commandment, spread out by the Apostles for the salvation of men. His feet like gold-copper, as though burning in a furnace. It says the Apostles, who were burned in suffering, preached His word; through them, in fact, the preaching went out (lit. ‘walked’); they were well-named “feet.” See where the prophet anticipated this, saying: We will worship where His feet have stood, for where they first stood the Church was also established, that is Judea; there will all the saints be gathered and worship their God.

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He who does not know, does not live

Have helpful spirits about you. The good fortune of the mighty that they can surround themselves with men of understanding who protect them from the dangers of every ignorance, who disengage them from the snarls of every difficulty. A singular distinction, to be served by the wise; and better than the barbarous taste of Tigranes, he who used captive kings as servants. A new kind of lordship and of the best in life: by art to make subjects of those whom nature placed above you. Knowledge is long, and life is short, and he who does not know, does not live. Peculiarly smart, therefore, to learn without effort and much from many, being taught by all. Later, in the assembly this man speaks for the many, for through his lips there speak all the sages that he drew upon for counsel; thus does he gain the title of oracle through the sweat of others. These superior souls first choose the lesson: to teach it later as the quintessence of wisdom. Wherefore let him who cannot manage to have wisdom in his train, at least strive to be familiar with it.

Gracian’s Manual, § 15.